References

Autologous bone marrow cell implantation in the treatment of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: Five year follow-up of a prospective controlled study.

Gangji V, De Maertelaer V, Hauzeur JP.Autologous bone marrow cell implantation in the treatment of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: Five year follow-up of a prospective controlled study.Bone. 49:1005-1009, 2011.

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Treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head with drilling and injection of concentrated autologous bone marrow.

Edgar, C., and Einhorn, T. A.: Treatment of Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head With Drilling and Injection of Concentrated Autologous Bone Marrow. TECH. ORTHOP., 26:2-8, 2011.

Percutaneous implantation of autologous bone marrow osteoprogenitor cells as treatment of bone avascular necrosis related to sickle cell disease.

Hernigou P, Daltro G, Filippini P, Mukasa MM, Manicom O.
Open Orthop J. 2008 Apr 25;2:62-5.

The use of percutaneous autologous bone marrow transplantation in nonunion and avascular necrosis of bone.

Hernigou P, Poignar A, Manicom O, Mathieu G, Rouard H.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005 Jul;87(7):896-902.

Treatment of osteonecrosis with autologous bone marrow grafting.

Hernigou P, Beaujean F.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002 Dec;(405):14-23.

Treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head with implantation of autologous bone-marrow cells. A pilot study.

Gangji V, Hauzeur JP, Matos C, DeMaertelaer V, Toungouz M, Lambermont M.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Jun;86-A(6):1153-60.

Treating osteonecrosis with autologous bone marrow cells.

Gangji V, Hauzeur JP.
Skeletal Radiol. 2010 Mar;39(3):209-11.

Treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head with implantation of autolgoous bone-marrow cells. Surgical technique.

Gangji V, Hauzeur JP.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Mar;87 Suppl 1(Pt1):106-12.

Peer-Reviewed Manuscripts:

  1. Francis, W.R., Einhorn, T.A., and Fielding, J.W.:Osteoid Osteoma of the Thoracic Spine.CLIN. ORTHOP., 149:175‑176, 1980.
  2. Einhorn, T.A., Lane, J.M., Burstein, A.H., Kopman, C.R, and Vigorita, V.J.:The Healing of Segmental Bone Defects Induced by Demineralized Bone Matrix. A Radiographic and Biomechanical Study.J. BONE JOINT SURG., 66A:274‑279, 1984.
  3. Inserra, S., Einhorn, T.A., Vigorita, V.J., and Smith, A.G.: Intraosseous Xanthoma Associated with Hyperlipoproteinemia: A Case Report.CLIN. ORTHOP., 187:218-222, 1984.
  4. Einhorn, T.A.: Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Disease. ADV. ORTHOP SURG. 8:175‑184, 1984.
  5. Lane, J.M., Healy, J., Schwartz, E.R., Vigorita, V.J., Schneider, R., Einhorn, T.A., Suda, M.D, and Robbins, W.:Treatment of Osteoporosis with Sodium Fluoride and Calcium: Effect on Vertebral Fracture Incidence and Bone Histomorphometry. ORTHOP. CLIN. NORTH AMERICA, 15:729‑745, 1984.
  6. Bonnarens, F., and Einhorn, T.A.,:Production of a Standard Closed Fracture in Laboratory Animal Bone.J. ORTHOP. RES. 2:97‑101, 1984.
  7. Einhorn, T.A., Gordon, S.L., Hummel, C.F., Siegel, S.A., Avitable, M.J., and Carty, R.P.:Matrix Vesicle Enzymes in Human Osteoarthritis.J. ORTHOP. RES., 3:160 ‑ 169, 1985.
  8. Einhorn, T.A., Vigorita, V.J., and Teitcher, J.:Hyperphosphatasemia in an Adult:Clinical Roentgenographic and Histomorphometric Findings and Comparison to Classical Paget's Disease.CLIN. ORTHOP., 204:253‑260, 1986.
  9. Einhorn, T.A., Vigorita, V.J., and Aaron, A.:Localization of Technetium 99m Methylene Diphosphonate in Bone using Microautoradiography. J. ORTHOP. RES., 4:180‑187, 1986.
  10. Vigorita, V.J., Anand, V.S., and Einhorn, T.A.:Sampling Error in Diagnosing Hyperparathyroid Changes in Bone in Small Needle Biopsies. AM. J. SURG. PATH., 10 (2): 140‑142, 1986.
  11. Einhorn, T.A., Bonnarens, F., and Burstein, A.H.:The Contributions of Dietary Proteinand Mineral to the Healing of Experimental Fractures:A Biomechanical Study.J. BONE JOINT SURG., 68A:1389‑1395, 1986.
  12. Phelps, K.R., Einhorn, T.A., Vigorita, V.J., Lieberman, R.L., and Uribarri, J.: Acidosis‑Induced Osteomalacia: Metabolic Studies and Skeletal Histomorphometry. BONE,7:171‑179, 1986.
  13. Phelps, K.R., Einhorn, T.A., Vigorita, V.J., Lundin, A.P., and Friedman, E.A.: Fracture Healing with Deferoxamine Therapy in a Patient with Aluminum‑Associated Osteomalacia. TRANS. AM. SOC. ARTIF. INTERN. ORGANS, 32:198‑200, 1986
  14. Einhorn, T.A.: Evaluation and Treatment Methods for Metabolic Bone Disease.CONTEMP. ORTHOP., 14:21‑34, 1987.
  15. Vigorita, V.J., Einhorn, T.A., and Phelps, K.R.:The Microscopic Bone Pathology in Two Cases of Surgically Treated Secondary Hyperparathyroidism:A Report of a Distinct Skeletal Lesion. AM. J.SURG. PATH., 11:205-209, 1987.
  16. Einhorn, T.A., Boskey, A.L., Gundberg, C.M., Vigorita, V.J., Devlin,V.J., and Beyer, M.M.: The Mineral and Mechanical Properties of Bone in Chronic Experimental Diabetes. J. ORTHOP. RES., 6:317‑323, 1988.
  17. Phelps, K.R., Vigorita, V.J., Bansal, M., and Einhorn, T.A.: Histochemical Localization of Iron but not Aluminum in a Case of Dialysis-Associated Osteomalacia. AM. J. MED., 84:775-780, 1988.
  18. Devlin, V.J., Einhorn, T.A., Gordon, S.L., Alvarez, E.V., and Butt, K.M.H.: Total Hip Replacement After Renal Transplantation. Long Term Follow‑up and Assessment of Metabolic Bone Status. J. ARTHROP., 3:205‑214, 1988.
  19. Einhorn, T.A., Gundberg, C.M., Devlin, V.J., and Warman, J.: Fracture  Healing and Osteocalcin Metabolism in Vitamin K Deficiency. CLIN. ORTHOP., 237:219-222, 1988.
  20. Jacobs, S.J., Gilbert, M.S., and Einhorn, T.A.: The Treatment Fractures in Uremic Bone Disease. Causes of Failure and Optimization of Healing. CONTEMP. ORTHOP., 18:23-35, 1989.
  21. Phelps, K.R., Einhorn, T.A., Vigorita, V.J., Jones, G., and Lundin, A.P.:  Persistence of Dialysis Osteomalacia Despite Treatment with 24R,25‑Dihydroxycholecalciferol. NEPHRON, 51:197-206, 1989.
  22. Verhaeghe, J., Suiker, A.M.H., Nyomba, B.L., Visser, W.J., Einhorn, T.A., Dequeker, J., and Bouillon, R.: Bone Mineral Homeostasis in Spontaneously Diabetic BB Rats, II. Impaired Bone Turnover and Decreased Osteocalcin Synthesis. ENDOCRINOLOGY, 124:573-582, 1989.
  23. Einhorn, T.A., Hirschman, A., Kaplan, C., Nashed, R., Devlin, V.J., and Warman, J.: Neutral Protein-Degrading Enzymes in Experimental Fracture Callus. J. ORTHOP. RES. 7:792-805, 1989.
  24. Horowitz, M.C., Coleman, D.L., Ryaby, J.T., and Einhorn, T.A.: Osteotropic Agents Induce the Differential Secretion of Granulocyte - Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor by the Osteoblast Cell Line MC3T3-E1. J. BONE MINER. RES., 4:911-921, 1989.
  25. Horowitz, M.C., Einhorn, T.A., Philbrick, W., and Jilka, R.L.: Functional and Molecular Changes in Colony Stimulating Factor Secretion by Osteoblasts. CONNECT. TISSUE RES., 20:159-168, 1989.
  26. Einhorn, T.A., and Grelsamer, R.: The Use of Bone Grafts for Support and Fixation in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty. BULL. HOSP. JT. DIS. ORTHOP. INST., 49:10-20, 1989
  27. Schwartz, M.E., Harrington, E.B., Harrington, M., Miller, C.M., Einhorn, T.A., McGinnis, K., and Haimov M.: Above-knee Amputation in Patients with Prior Prosthetic Hip Surgery: A Caveat: J. VASC. SURG., 11:480-481, 1990.
  28. Labat, M.L., Bringuier, A-F., Chandra, A., Einhorn, T.A., and Chandra, P.:  Retroviral Expression in Mononuclear Blood Cells Isolated from a Patient with Osteopetrosis (Albers-Schönberg Disease).  J. BONE MINER. RES., 5:425-435, 1990.
  29. Verhaeghe, J., Van Herck, E.V., Visser, W.J., Suiker, M.H., Thomasset, M., Einhorn, T.A., Faierman, E., and Bouillon, R.:  Bone and Mineral Metabolism in the Long-Term Diabetic BB Rat:  Decreased Bone Turnover and Osteoporosis.  DIABETES, 39:477-482, 1990.
  30. Einhorn, T.A.: Osteopenic Disease:  Diagnosis and Treatment. CURR. ORTHOP., 4:190-197, 1990.
  31. Einhorn, T.A., Simon, G., Devlin, V.J., Warman, J., Sidhu, S.P.S., and  Vigorita, V.J.:  The Osteogenic Response to Distant Skeletal Injury. J. BONE JOINT SURG. 72A:1374-1378, 1990.
  32. Verhaeghe, J., Visser, W.J., Einhorn, T.A., and Bouillon, R: Osteoporosis and Diabetes: Lessons from the Diabetic BB Rat. HORM. RES., 34:245-248, 1990.
  33. Einhorn, T.A., and Majeska, R.J.: Neutral Proteases in Regenerating Bone.  CLIN. ORTHOP., 262:286-297, 1991.
  34. Lisser, S.P., and Einhorn, T.A.:Fracture Surgery in Metabolic BoneDisease.CONTEMP. ORTHOP., 22:537-545, 1991.
  35. Einhorn, T.A.:Clinical Applications of Recombinant Gene Technology:Bone and Cartilage Repair.CELLS AND MATERIALS, 2:1-11, 1992.
  36. Majeska, R.J., Minkowitz, B., Bastian, W., and Einhorn, T.A.:Effects of Beta-Adrenergic Blockade in an Osteoblast-Like Cell Line.J. ORTHOP. RES., 10:379-384, 1992.
  37. Einhorn, T.A., Wakley, G.K., Linkhart, S., Rush, E.B., Maloney, S., Faierman, E., and Baylink, D.J.:Incorporation of Sodium Fluoride Into Cortical Bone Does Not Impair the Mechanical Properties of the Appendicular Skeleton in Rats.CALCIF. TISSUE INT., 51:127-131, 1992.
  38. Einhorn, T.A.:Bone Strength: The Bottom Line.CALCIF. TISSUE INT., 51:333-339, 1992.
  39. Pan, W.T., and Einhorn, T.A.:The Biochemistry of Fracture Healing.CURR. ORTHOP., 6:207-213, 1992.
  40. Perry, M.D., Mont, M.A., Einhorn, T.A., and Waller, J.D.:The Validity of Measurements Made on Standard Foot Orthoroentgenograms.FOOT ANKLE, 13:502-507, 1992.
  41. Majeska, R.J., Port, M., and Einhorn, T.A.:Attachment to Extracellular Matrix Molecules by Cells Differing in the Expression of Osteoblastic Traits.J. BONE MINER. RES., 8:277-289, 1993.
  42. Kaufman, J.J., and Einhorn, T.A.:Ultrasound Assessment of Bone.J. BONE MINER. RES., 8:517-525, 1993.
  43. Bab, I.A., and Einhorn, T.A.:Regulatory Role of Osteogenic Growth Polypeptides in Bone Formation and Hemopoiesis.CRIT. REV. EUKARYOT.GENE EXP., 3:31-46, 1993.
  44. Vanderschueren, D., Van Herck, E., Suiker, A.M.H., Visser, W.J., Schot, L.P.C., Chung, K., Lucas, T.S., Einhorn, T.A., and Bouillon, R.:Bone and Mineral Metabolism in the Androgen Resistant (Testicularized Feminized) Male Rat.J. BONE MINER. RES., 8:801-809, 1993.
  45. Lucas, T.S., and Einhorn, T.A.:Stress Fracture of the Femoral Neck During Rehabilitation After Heart Transplantation.ARCH. PHYS. MED. REHABIL., 74:1004-1006, 1993.
  46. Lucas, T.S., and Einhorn, T.A.:Osteoporosis:The Role of the Orthopaedist.J. AMER. ACAD. ORTHOP. SURG., 1:48-56, 1993.
  47. Vanderschueren, D., Van Herck, E., Schot, L., Rush, E., Einhorn, T., Guesens, P., and Bouillon R.:The Aged Male Rat as a Model for Human Osteoporosis:Evaluation by Non-Destructive Measurements and Biomechanical Testing.CALCIF. TISSUE INT., 53:342-347, 1993.
  48. Majeska, R.J., Ryaby, J.T., and Einhorn, T.A.:Direct Modulation of Osteoblastic Activity with Estrogen.J. BONE JOINT SURG., 76A:713-721, 1994.
  49. Sato, M., Garsky, V., Majeska, R.J., Einhorn, T.A., Murray, J., Tashjian, A.H., and Gould R.J.:Structure-Activity of the s-Eichistatin Inhibition of Bone Resorption.J. BONE MINER. RES., 9:1441-1449, 1994.
  50. Robinson, D., and Einhorn, T.A.:Giant Cell Tumor of Bone:A Unique Paradigm of Stromal-Hematopoietic Cellular Interactions.J. CELL BIOCHEM., 55:300-303, 1994.
  51. Bab, I.A., and Einhorn, T.A.:Polypeptide Factors Regulating Osteogenesis and Bone Marrow Repair.J. CELL. BIOCHEM., 55:358-365, 1994.
  52. Verhaeghe, J., Suiker, A.M.H., Einhorn, T.A., Geusens, P., Visser, W.J., Van Herck, E., Van Bree, R., Magitsky, S., and Bouillon, R.: Brittle Bones in Spontaneously Diabetic Rats Cannot Be Predicted by Bone Mineral Measurements. J. BONE MINER. RES., 9:1657-1667, 1994.
  53. Einhorn, T.A., and Kaplan, F.S.: Traumatic Fractures of Heterotopic Bone in Patients Who Have Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva - A Report of Two Cases. CLIN. ORTHOP., 308:173-177, 1994.
  54. Molinari, R.W., Yang, E.C., Strauss, E., and Einhorn, T.A.: Timing of Internal Fixation in Low-Velocity Gunshot Fractures. CONTEMP. ORTHOP. 29:335-339, 1994.
  55. Einhorn, T.A.: Current Concepts Review: Enhancement of Fracture Healing. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 77A:940-956, 1995.
  56. Silver, J.J., and Einhorn, T.A.: Osteoporosis and Aging: Current Update. CLIN. ORTHOP., 316:10-20, 1995.
  57. Einhorn, T.A., Majeska, R.J., Rush, E.B., Levine, P.M., and Horowitz, M.C.: The Expression of Cytokine Activity by Fracture Callus. J. BONE MINER. RES., 10:1272-1281, 1995.
  58. Pastores, G.M., and Einhorn, T.A.: Skeletal Complications of Gaucher Disease: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Treatment. SEMINARS HEMATOL., 32 (Suppl 1): 20-27, 1995
  59. Duursma, S.A., Aerts, J.M.F.G., Belmatoug, N., Cox, T.M., Einhorn, T.A., Esplin, J.A., Hollack, C.E.M., Incerti, C., Pastores, G. M., Rademakers, R., and Zaizov, R.:Management of Gaucher Disease - Current Status and Future Directions: A Roundtable Discussion. SEMINARS HEMATOL., 32 (Suppl 1):45-52, 1995.
  60. Mautelen, C.A., Vega, E.M., and Einhorn, T.A.: Are the Etiologies of Cervical and Trochanteric Hip Fractures Different? BONE, 18:133S-137S, 1996.
  61. Trippel, S.B., Coutts, R.D., Einhorn, T.A., Mundy, G.R., and Rosenfeld, R.G.: Growth Factors as Therapeutic Agents. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 78A:1272-1286, 1996.
  62. Verhaeghe, R., van Bree, R., Van Herck, E., Thomas, H., Skottner, A., Dequeker, J., Mosekilde, Li, Einhorn, T.A., and Bouillon, R.: Effects of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, With or Without 17b-Estradiol, on Bone and Mineral Homeostasis of Aged Ovariectomized Rats. J. BONE MINER. RES., 11:1723-1735, 1996.
  63. Melton, L.J., III, Thamer, M., Ray, N.F., Chan, J.K., Chesnut, C.H., III, Einhorn, T.A., Johnston, C.C., Raisz, L.G., Silverman, S.L., and Siris, E.S.: Fractures Attributable to Osteoporosis: Report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. J. BONE MINER. RES., 12:16-23, 1997.
  64. Gottlieb, S. and Einhorn, T.A.: Current Concepts Review: Managed Care: Form, Function and Evolution. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 79A:125-136, 1997.
  65. Verhaeghe, J., Oloumi, G., Van Herck, E., Van Bree, R., Dequeker, J., Einhorn, T.A., and Bouillon, R. : Effects of Long-Term Diabetes and/or High Dose 17B-Estradiol on Bone Formation, Bone Mineral Density, and Strength in Ovariectomized Rats. BONE, 20:421-428, 1997.
  66. Lucas, T.S., Bab, I.A., Lian, J.B., Stein, G.S., Jazrawi, L., Majeska, R.J., Attar-Namdar, M., and Einhorn, T.A.: Stimulation of Systemic Bone Formation Induced by Experimental Blood Loss. CLIN ORTHOP., 340:267-275, 1997.
  67. Robinson, D., M.M., Nevo, Z., Kenan, S., and Einhorn, T.A.: The Radiographic State of Giant Cell Tumor Related to Stromal Cells' Proliferation: Tissue Cultures in 13 Cases. ACTA ORTHOP. SCAND., 68:294-297, 1997.
  68. Seo, E.-G., Einhorn, T. A., and Norman, A.W.: 24R, 25 - Dihydroxyvitamin D3: An Essential Metabolite for Both Normal Bone Integrity and Healing of Tibial Fractures in Chicks. ENDOCRINOLOGY, 138: 3864-3872, 1997.
  69. Yamazaki, M., Majeska, R.J., Yoshioka, H., Moriya, H., and Einhorn, T.A.: Spatial and Temporal Expression of Fibril Forming Minor Collagen Genes (Types V and XI) during Fracture Healing.J. ORTHOP.RES. 15: 757-764, 1997.
  70. Mont, M.A., Einhorn, T.A., Sponseller, P.D., and Hungerford, D.S.: The Trapdoor Procedure Using Autogenous Cortical and Cancellous Bone Grafts for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 80B: 56-62, 1998.
  71. Jazrawi, L.M., Majeska, R.J.,Klein, M.L., Kagel, E., Strömberg, L., and Einhorn, T.A.: Bone and Cartilage Formation in an Experimental Model of Distraction Osteogenesis. J.ORTHOP. TRAUMA,12: 111-116, 1998.
  72. Brunelli, M.P., and Einhorn, T.A.: Medical Management of Osteoporosis: Fracture Prevention. CLIN. ORTHOP., 15-21, 1998.
  73. Lee, F. Y-I., Choi, Y.W., Behrens, F.F., DeFouw, D.O., and Einhorn, T.A.: Programmed Removal of Chondrocytes During Endochondral Fracture Healing. J. ORTHOP. RES., 16: 144-150, 1998.
  74. Gottlieb, S., and Einhorn, T.A.,: Beyond HMOs: Understanding the Next Wave of Change in Health-Care Organization. J. AMER. ACAD. ORTHOP. SURG., 6:75-83, 1998.
  75. Sanzone, A.G. and Einhorn, T.A.: The Use of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins to Heal Fractures, Articular Cartilage Defects, and Ligament and Tendon Injuries. SPORTS MED. AND ARTHROSC. REV., 6:118-123, 1998.
  76. Kato, A., Seo, E.-G., Einhorn, T.A, Bishop, J.E. and Norman, A.W.: Studies on 24R, 25-Dihydroxyvitamins D3: Evidence for a Non-Nuclear Membrane Receptor in Chick Tibial Fracture-Healing Callus. BONE, 23: 141-146, 1998.
  77. Einhorn, T.A.: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Fracture Healing. CLIN. ORTHOP., 355S: S7-S21, 1998.
  78. Mont, M.A., Jones, L.C., Einhorn, T.A., Hungerford, D.S., and Reddi, A.H.: Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: Potential Treatment with Growth and Differentiation Factors. CLIN. ORTHOP., 355S:S314-S335, 1998.
  79. Mirsky, E.C., and Einhorn, T.A.: Bone Densitometry in Orthopaedic Practice. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 80A:1687-1698, 1998.
  80. Yamazaki, M., Majeska, R.J., Nakajimi, F., Ogasawara, A. Moriya, H., and Einhorn, T.A.: Spatial and Temporal Distribution of CD44 and Osteopontin in Fracture Callus. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 81B: 516-521, 1999.
  81. Holzer, G., Majeska, R.J., Lundy, M.W., Hartke, J.R. and Einhorn, T.A.: Parathyroid Hormone Enhances Experimental Fracture Healing. A Preliminary Report. CLIN.ORTHOP., 366:258-263, 1999.
  82. Einhorn, T.A.: Clinically Applied Models of Bone Regeneration in Tissue Engineering Research. CLIN. ORTHOP. S59-S67, 1999.
  83. Barnes, G. L., Kostenuik, L. J., Gerstenfeld, L. C., and Einhorn, T. A. : Growth Factor Regulation of Fracture Healing. J. BONE MINER. RES., 14:1805-1815, 1999.
  84. Kon, T., Cho, T.-J., Aizawa, T., Yamazaki, M., Nooh, N., Graves, D., Gerstenfeld, L. C. and Einhorn, T. A. : Expression of Osteoprotegerin, Receptor Activator of NF-kB Ligand (Osteoprotegerin Ligand) and Related Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines During Fracture Healing. J. BONE MINER. RES., 16:1004-1014, 2001.
  85. Weisstein, J. S., Majeska, R. J., Klein, M. J. and Einhorn, T. A. : Detection of c-fos Expression in Benign and Malignant Musculoskeletal Lesions. J. ORTHOP. RES., 19:339-345, 2001.
  86. Einhorn, T. A. and Lee, C. A.: Bone Regeneration: New Findings and Potential Clinical Applications. J. AM. ACAD. ORTHOP. SURG., 9:157-165, 2001.
  87. Gerstenfeld, L. C., Cho, T-J, Kon, T., Aizawa, T., Cruceta, J., Graves, B. D., and Einhorn, T. A.: Impaired Intramembranous Bone Formation During Bone Repair in the Absence of TNF-a Signaling. CELLS TISSUES ORGANS ,169:285-94, 2001.
  88. Aizawa, T., Kon, T., Einhorn, T. A. and Gerstenfeld, L. C.: Induction of Apoptosis in Chondrocytes by Tumor Necrosis Factor-a. J. ORTHOP. RES., 19:785-796, 2001.
  89. Nakajima, F., Ogasawara, A., Goto, K-I., Moriya, H., Ninomiya, Y., Einhorn, T. A. and Yamazaki, M.: Spatial and Temporal Gene Expression in Chondrogenesis during Fracture Healing and the Effects of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor. J. ORTHOP. RES., 19:935-944, 2001.
  90. Nakajima, A., Nakajima, S., Shimizu, S., Ogasawara, A., Wanaka, A., Moriya, H., Einhorn, T. A. and Yamazaki, M.: Spatial and Temporal Gene Expression for Fibroblast Growth Factor Type I Expression during Fracture Healing in the Rat. BONE, 29:458-466, 2001.
  91. Gerstenfeld, L. C., Cruceta, J., Shea, C. M., Sampath, K., Barnes, G. and Einhorn, T. A.: Chondrocytes Provide Morphogenic Signals that Selectively Induce Osteogenic Differentiation in Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J. BONE MINER. RES., 17:221-230, 2002.
  92. Cho, T-J., Gerstenfeld, L. C. and Einhorn, T. A.: Differential Temporal Expression of Members of the TGF-B Superfamily during Murine Fracture Healing. J. BONE MINER. RES., 17:513-520, 2002.
  93. Holzer, G., Einhorn, T. A. and Majeska, R. J.: Estrogen Regulation of Growth and Alkaline Phosphatase Expression by Cultured Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells. J. ORTHOP. RES., 20:281-294, 2002 .
  94. Kinner, B., Gerstenfeld, L. C., Einhorn, T. A. and Spector, M.: Expression of Smooth Muscle Actin in Connective Tissue Cells Participating in Fracture Healing in a Murine Model. BONE, 5:738-745, 2002.
  95. Cullinane, D. M., Fredrick, A., Eisenberg, S. R., Pacicca, D., Elman, M. V., Lee, C., Salisbury, K., Gerstenfeld, L. C. and Einhorn, T. A.: Induction of a Neoarthrosis by Precisely Controlled Motion in an Experimental Mid-Femoral Defect. J. ORTHOP. RES., 20:579-586, 2002.
  96. Lieberman, J. R., Daluski, A. and Einhorn, T. A.: Current Concepts Review: The Role of Growth Factors in the Repair of Bone: Biology and Potential Clinical Applications. J. BONE JOINT SURG.., 84A:1032-1044, 2002.
  97. Nakajima, A., Shimoji, N., Shiomi, K., Shimizu, S., Moriya, H., Einhorn, T. A. and Yamazaki, M.: Mechanisms for the Enhancement of Fracture Healing in Rats Treated with Intermittent Low Dose Human Parathyroid Hormone(1-34). J. BONE MINER. RES., 17:2038-2047, 2002.
  98. Bhattacharyya, T., Gale, D., Dewire, P., Trotterman, S., Gale, M. E., Einhorn, T. A., McLaughlin, S. and Felson, D.: The Clinical Importance of Meniscal Tears Found by Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Osteoarthritic Knee. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 85A:4-9, 2003.
  99. Kinner, B., Pacicca, D. M., Gerstenfeld, L. C., Lee C., Einhorn, T. A. and Spector, M.: Expression of Smooth Muscle Actin in Cells Involved in Distraction Osteogenesis in a Rat Model. J. ORTHOP. RES. 21:20-27, 2003.
  100. Einhorn, T. A.: Cox-2: Where are we in 2003? - The Role of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Bone Repair. ARTHRITIS RES. THER., 5:5-7, 2003.
  101. Gerstenfeld, L. C., Cullinane, D. M., Barnes, G. L., Graves, D. T. and Einhorn, T. A : Fracture Healing as a Post-natal Developmental Process: Molecular, Spatial, and Temporal Aspects of its Regulation. J. CELL BIOCHEM., 88:873-884, 2003.
  102. Gerstenfeld, L.C., Barnes, G. L., Shea, M. and Einhorn, T. A.: Osteogenic Differentiation Is Selectively Promoted by Morphogenetic Signals From Chondrocytes and Synergized by a Nutrient Rich Growth Environment. CONN. TISSUE RES. 44(Suppl.1):85-91, 2003.
  103. Gerstenfeld, L. C., Thiede, M., Seibert, K., Mielke, C., Phippard, D., Svagr, B., Cullinane, D. and Einhorn, T. A. : Differential Inhibition of Fracture Healing by Non-Selective and Cyclooxygenase-2 Selective Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. J. ORTHOP. RES. 21:670-675, 2003.
  104. Cullinane, D. M., Salisbury, K. T., Alkhiary, Y., Eisenberg, S., Gerstenfeld, L., and Einhorn, T. A.: Effects of the Local Mechanical Environment on Vertebrate Tissue Differentiation during Repair: Does Repair Recapitulate Development? J. EXP. BIOL., 206:2459-2471, 2003.
  105. Bhattacharyya, T., Tornetta, P., Healy, W. L., and Einhorn, T. A.: The Validity of Supporting Data for Claims Made in Orthopaedic Print Advertisements. J. BONE JOINT SURG. 85A:1224-1228, 2003.
  106. Einhorn, T. A., Majeska, R. J., Mohaideen, A., Kagel, E. M., Bouxsein, M. L., Turek, T. J. and Wozney, J. M.: A Single Percutaneous Injection of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Accelerates Fracture Repair. J. BONE JOINT SURG. 85A:1425-1435, 2003.
  107. Bhandari, M., Einhorn, T. A., Swiontkowski, M. F, and Heckman, J. D.: Who Did What? (Mis) Perceptions About Authors' Contributions to Scientific Articles Based Upon Authorship Order. J. BONE JOINT SURG. 85A:1605-1609, 2003.
  108. Einhorn, T. A.: Clinical Applications of Recombinant Human BMPs: Early Experience and Future Development. J. BONE JOINT SURG. 85A(Suppl. 3):82-88, 2003.
  109. Gerstenfeld, L.C., Cho, T-J., Kon, T., Aizawa, T., Tsay, A., Barnes, G. L., Graves, D. T., and Einhorn, T. A.: Impaired Fracture Healing in the Absence of Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Signaling: The Role of TNF-a in Endochondral Cartilage Resorption. J. BONE MINER. RES., 18:1584-1592, 2003.
  110. Cho, T. J., Lehmann, W., Edgar, C., Sadeghi, C., Hou, A., Einhorn, T. A. and Gerstenfeld, L. C.: Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Activation of the Apoptotic Cascade in Murine Articular Chondrocytes Is Associated with the Induction of Metalloproteinases and Specific Pro-resorptive Factors. ARTHRITIS RHEUM., 48:2845-2854, 2003.
  111. Gerstenfeld, L. C. and Einhorn, T. A.: Developmental Aspects of Fracture Healing and and the Use of Pharmacological Agents to Alter Healing. J. MUSCULOSKEL. NEURON INTERACT., 3:297-303, 2003.
  112. Bono, C. M. and Einhorn, T. A. Overview of Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology and Determinants of Bone Strength. EUR. SPINE J., 12:Suppl 2:S90-96, 2003
  113. Shea, C. M., Edgar, C. M., Einhorn, T. A., and Gerstenfeld, L. C.: BMP Treatment of C3H10T1/2 Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Both Chondrogenesis and Osteogenesis. J. CELL BIOCHEM, 15:1112-1127, 2003.
  114. Pacicca, D. M., Patel, N., Lee, C., Salisbury, K., Lehman, W., Carvalho, R., Gerstenfeld, L.C., and Einhorn, T. A.: Expression of Angiogenic Factors during Distraction Osteogenesis. BONE, 33:889-898, 2003.
  115. Schmidmaier, G., Wildemann, B., Melis, B., Krummrey, G., Einhorn, T. A., Haas, N. P. And Raschke, M.: Development and Characterization of a Standard Closed Tibial Fracture Model in the Rat. EUR. J. TRAUMA, 30:35-42, 2004.
  116. Gerstenfeld, L. C. and Einhorn, T. A.: COX Inhibitors and Their Effects on Bone Healing. EXPERT OPIN. DRUG SAF., 2:131-136, 2004.
  117. Nakazawa, T., Nakajima, A., Seki, N., Okawa, A., Kato, M., Moriya, H., Amizuka, N., Einhorn, T.A. and Yamazaki, M.: Gene Expression of Periostin in the Early Stage of Fracture Healing Detected by cDNA Microarray Analysis. J. ORTHOP. RES., 22:520-525, 2004.
  118. Carvalho, R. S., Einhorn, T. A., Lehman, W., Edgar, C., Alyamani, A., Apazidis, A., Pacicca, D., Clemens, T. L., and Gerstenfeld, L. C.: The Role of Angiogenesis in a Murine Model of Distraction Osteogenesis. BONE 34:849-861, 2004.
  119. Barnes, G. L., Hebert, K., Kamal, M., Javed, A., Einhorn, T. A., Lian, J.B., Stein, G. S., and Gerstenfeld, L. C.: Fidelity of Runx2 Activity in Breast Cancer Cells is Required for the Generation of Metastases Associated Osteolytic Disease. CANCER RES., 64:4506-4513, 2004.
  120. Bhandari, M., Swiontkowski, M., Einhorn, T. A., Tornetta III, P., Schemitsch, E., and Wright, J., G.: Inter-observer Agreement in the Application of the Levels of Evidence to Scientific Papers in The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 86A:1717-1720, 2004.
  121. Lochner, H. V. and Einhorn, T. A. : Advances in Therapeutic Diagnostics: Hormone Replacement Therapy. J. AMER. ACAD. ORTHOP. SURG., 12:291-294, 2004.
  122. Kim, H. J. W., Bian, H., Randall, T., Garces, A., Gerstenfeld, L. C., and Einhorn, T. A.: Increased VEGF Expression in the Epiphyseal Cartilage Following Ischemic Necrosis of the Capital Femoral Epiphysis. J. BONE MINER. RES., 19:2041-2048, 2004.
  123. Lehmann, W., Schinke, T., Catala-Lehnen, P., Gebauer, M., Pogoda, P., Gerstenfeld, L.C., Rueger, J.M., Einhorn, T. A., and Amling, M.: Absence of Mouse Pleiotrophin Does Not Affect Bone Formation In Vivo. BONE, 35:1247-1255, 2004.
  124. Mont, M. A., Ragland, P. S., Biggins, B., Friedlaender, G., Patel, T., Cook, S., Etienne, G., Shimmin, A., Kildey, R., Rueger, D.C., and Einhorn, T. A.: Use of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins for Musculoskeletal Applications: An Overview. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 86A:S2:41-55, 2004.
  125. Bhandari, M., Bajammal, S., Guyatt, G. H., Griffith, L., Busse, J., W., Schunermann, H., and Einhorn, T., A.:The Effect of Bisphosphonates on Periprosthetic Bone Mineral Density After Total Joint Arthroplasty. A Meta-Analysis. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 87A:293-301, 2005.
  126. Lehmann, W., Edgar, C. M., Wang, K., Cho, T-J., Barnes, G. L., Kakar, S., Graves, D. T., Rueger, J. M., Gerstenfeld, L. C., and Einhorn, T. A.: Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-a) Coordinately Regulates the Expression of Specific Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Angiogenic Factors During Fracture Healing. BONE, 36:300-310, 2005.
  127. Alkhiary, Y. M., Gerstenfeld, L. C., Krall, E., Westmore, M., Sato, M., Mitlak, B. H., and Einhorn, T. A.: Enhancement of Experimental Fracture Healing by Systemic Administration of Recombinant Human Parathyroid Hormone (PTH 1-34). J. BONE JOINT SURG., 87:731-741, 2005.
  128. Purvis, J. M., Alexander, A. H., Einhorn, T. A., and Griffin, L. Y.: Evaluating the Flood or Orthopaedic Media and Marketing Information. J BONE JOINT SURG., 87A:1392-1398, 2005.
  129. Morris, C. D., and Einhorn, T. A. :Current Concepts Review: Bisphosphonates in Orthopaedic Surgery. J BONE JOINT SURG., 87A:1609-1618, 2005.
  130. Gerstenfeld, L. C., Wronski, T. J., Hollinger, J.O., and Einhorn, T. A.: Application of Histomorphometric Methods to the Study of Bone Repair. J. BONE MINER. RES., 20:1715-1722, 2005.
  131. Nakazawa, T., Nakajima, A., Shiomi, K., Moriya, H., Einhorn, T.A. and Yamazaki, M.: Effects of Low-dose, Intermittent Treatment with Recombinant Human Parathyroid Hormone (1-34) on Chondrogenesis in a Model of Experimental Fracture Healing. BONE, 37:711-719, 2005.
  132. Kain, M. S, and Einhorn, T. A.: Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in the Treatment of Fractures. FOOT ANKLE CLIN., 10:639-650, 2005.
  133. Boden, S. D., Einhorn, T. A., Morgan, T. S., Tosi, L. L., and Weinstein, J. N.: An AOA Critical Issue. The Future of the Orthopaedic Surgeon – Proceduralist of Keeper of the Musculoskeletal System? J. BONE JOINT SURG., 87A:2812-2821, 2005.
  134. Einhorn, T. A. : The Science of Fracture Healing. J. ORTHOP. TRAUMA, 19(Suppl)S3-S6, 2005.
  135. Betz, O. B., Betz, V. M., Nazarian, A., Pilapil, C., G., Vrahas, M., S., Bouxsein, M., L., Gerstenfeld, L., C., Einhorn, T. A., and Evans, C., H.: Direct Percutaneous Gene Delivery to Enhance Healing of Segmental Bone Defects. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 88A:355-365, 2006.
  136. Boes, M., Kain, M., Kakar,S., Nichols, F., Cullinane, D., Gerstenfeld, L. C., Einhorn, T. A., and Tornetta, P. T. 3rd: The Osteogenic Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury in Experimental Fracture Healing. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 88A:738-743, 2006 .
  137. Wang, K., Vishwanath, P., Eichler, G. S., Al-Sebai, M. O., Edgar, C. M., Einhorn, T. A., Smith, T. F., Gerstenfeld, L. C.: Analysis of Fracture Healing by Large Scale Transcriptional Profile Identified Temporal Relationships between Metalloproteinase and ADAMTs mRNA Expression. MATRIX BIOL., 25:271-281, 2006.
  138. Einhorn, T. A.: Funding the Mandate for the Orthopaedic Clinician Scientist. CLIN. ORTHOP. RELAT. RES., 449: 76 – 80, 2006.
  139. Gerstenfeld, L. C., Alkhiary, Y. M., Krall, E A., Nicholls, F. H., Stapelton, S. N., Fitch, J. L., Bauer, M., Kayal, R., Graves, D. T., Jepsen, K. J., and Einhorn,T. A : Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Fracture Callus Morphogenesis. J. HISTOCHEM. CYTOCHEM., 54:1215-1228, 2006.
  140. Gruber, R., Koch, H., Doll, B. A., Tegtmeier, F., Einhorn, T. A., and Hollinger, J. O.: Fracture Healing in the Elderly Patient. EXP. GERONTO., 11:1080-1093, 2006.
  141. Tsuji, K., Bandyopadhyay, A., Harfe, B. D., Cox, K., Kakar, S., Gerstenfeld, L., Einhorn, T., Tabin, C. J., and Rosen, V.: BMP2 Activity, Although Dispensable for Bone Formation, is Required for the Initiation of Fracture Healing. NAT, GENET., 12:1424-1429, 2006.
  142. Gerstenfeld, L. C., Al-Ghawas, M., Alkhiary, Y. M., Cullinane, D. M., Krall, E. A., Fitch, J. L., Webb, E. G., Thiede, M. A., and Einhorn, T. A.: Selective and Non-selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Experimental Fracture-Healing. Reversibility of Effects after Short-term Treatment. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 89:114-125, 2007.
  143. De Long, W. G., Jr., Einhorn, T. A., Koval, K., McKee, M., Smith, W., Sanders, R., and Watson, T.: Bone Grafts and Bone Graft Substitutes in Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery. A Critical Analysis J BONE JOINT SURG., 89A:649-658, 2007.
  144. Marsell, R., Jonsson, K. B., Cho, T-J., Einhorn, T. A., Ohlsson, C., Schipani, E.: Mice Expressing a Consitutively Active PTH/PTHrP Receptor in Osteoblasts Show Reduced Callus Size but Normal Callus Morphology During Fracture Healing. ACTA ORTHOP. SCAND., 78:39-45, 2007.
  145. Kayal, R. A., Tsatsas, D., Bauer, M. A, Allen, B., Al-Sebaei, M.O., Kakar S, Leone, C.W., Morgan, E.F., Gerstenfeld, L, Einhorn, T.A., Graves, D.T.: Diminished Bone Formation during Diabetic Fracture Healing is Related to. the Premature Resorption of Cartilage Associated with Increased Osteoclast Activity. J BONE MINER RES., 22:560-568, 2007.
  146. Axelrad, T. W., Kakar, S., and Einhorn, T. A.: New Technologies for the Enhancement of Skeletal Repair. INJURY 38(Suppl) 1: S49-62, 2007.
  147. Saleh, K. J., Quick, J. C., Conaway, M., Sime, W. E., Martin, W., Hurwitz, S., and Einhorn, T. A.: The Prevalence and Severity of Burnout among Academic Orthopaedic Departmental Leaders. J BONE JOINT SURG. 89A:896-903, 2007.
  148. Edgar, C. M., Chakravarthy, V., Barnes, G. L., Kakar, S., Gerstenfeld, L. C., and Einhorn, T. A.: Autogenous Regulation of a Network of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) Mediates the Osteogenic Differentiation in Murine Marrow Stromal Cells. BONE, 40:1389-1398, 2007.
  149. Cho, T.J., Kim, J.A., Chung CY, Yoo, W.J., Gerstenfeld, L.C., Einhorn, T.A., and Choi, I.H.: Expression and Role of Interleukin-6 in Distraction Osteogenesis. CALCIF. TISSUE INT., 80:192-200, 2007.
  150. Bhandari, M., Busse, J., Devereaux, P. J., Momtori, V., M., Swiontkowski, M., Tornetta, P., Einhorn, T. A., Khera, T. A., and Schemitsch, E. H.: Factors Associated with Citation Rates in the Orthopaedic Literature. CAN. J. SURG., 50:119-123, 2007.
  151. Restrepo, C., Parvizi, J., Dietrich, T., and Einhorn, T. A.: Safety of Simultaneous Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty. A Meta-analysis. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 89A:1220-1226, 2007.
  152. Betz, O. B., Betz, V.M., Nazarian, A., Egermann,M., Gerstenfeld, L.C., Einhorn,T.A., Vrahas, M.S., Bouxsein, M.L., Evans, C.H. : Delayed Administration of Adenoviral BMP-2 vector Improves the Formation of Bone in Osseous Defects. GENE THER., 14:1039-1044, 2007.
  153. Tsiridis, E., Morgan, E. F., Bancroft, J. M., Song, M., Kain, M., Gerstenfeld, L., Einhorn, T. A., Bouxsein, M. L., Tornetta, P. 3rd: Effects of OP-1 and PTH in a New Experimental Model for the Study of Metaphyseal Bone Healing. J ORTHOP. RES., 25:1193-1203, 2007.
  154. Bishop, G. B, and Einhorn, T. A.: Current and Future Clinical Applications of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery. INT. ORTHOP., 31:721-727, 2007.
  155. Kakar, S., Einhorn, T. A., Vora, S., Hon, G., Wigner, N. A., Toben, D., Jacobsen, K., A., Al-Sebaei, M., O., Song, M., Trackman, P., C., Morgan, E., F., Gerstenfeld, L., C., and Barnes, G., L.: Enhanced Chondrogenesis and Wnt-signaling in Parathyroid Hormone Treated Fractures. J BONE MINER. RES., 22:1903 – 1912, 2007.
  156. Giannoudis, P. V., Kanakis, N., K., and Einhorn, T. A.: Interaction of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins with Cells of the Osteoclast Lineage: Review of the Existing Evidence. OSTEOPOROSIS INT., 18:1565-1581, 2007.
  157. Betz, V. M., Betz, O. B., Glatt, V., Gerstenfeld, L., C., Einhorn, T. A., Bouxsein, M., L., Vrahas, M., S., and Evans, C., H.:Healing of Segmental Bone Defects by Direct Percutaneous Gene Delivery: Effect of Vector Dose. HUM. GENE THER., 18:907-915, 2007.
  158. Giannoudis, P. V., Einhorn, T. A., and Marsh, D.: Fracture Healing: The Diamond Concept. INJURY 38 Suppl 4:S3-6, 2007.
  159. Hollinger, J., O., Onikepe, A., O., Mackrell, J., Einhorn, T., A., Bradica, G., Lynch, S., and Hart, C., E.: Accelerated Fracture Healing in the Geriatric, Osteoporotic Rat with Recombinant Human Platelet-derived Growth Factor-BB and an Injectable Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate/Collagen Matrix. J ORTHOP. RES., 26: 83 – 90, 2008.
  160. Wan, C., Gilbert, S. R., Wang, Y., Cao, X., Ramaswamy, G., Jacobsen, K. A., Alaql, Z., S., Eberhardt, A.W., Gerstenfeld, L. C., Einhorn, T., A., Deng, L., Clemens, T., L.: Activation of the Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 {alpha} Pathway Accelerates Bone Regeneration. PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. USA 105:686 – 689, 2008.
  161. Ai-Aql, Z. S., Alagl, A. S., Graves, D. T., Gerstenfeld. L. C., and Einhorn, T. A.:Molecular Mechanisms Controlling Bone Formation during Fracture Healing and Distraction Osteogenesis. J. DENT. RES., 87:107-118, 2008.
  162. Einhorn, T. A., Laurencin, C. T., and Lyons, K.: An AAOS-NIH Symposium. Fracture Repair: Challenges, Opportunities, and Directions for Future Research. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 90A:438-442, 2008.
  163. Barnes, G. L, Kakar, S., Vora, S., Morgan, E. F., Gerstenfeld, L. C, and Einhorn, T. A.: Stimulation of Fracture-Healing with Systemic Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone Treatment., J. BONE JOINT SURG., 90A(Suppl 1):120-127, 2008.
  164. Sung, J. K., Levin, R., Siegel, J., Einhorn, T. A., Creevy, W. R., and Tornetta, P.: Reuse of External Fixation Components: A Randomized Trial. J. ORTHOP. TRAUMA, 22:126-131, 2008.
  165. Jacobsen, K. A., Al-Aql, Z. S., Wan, C., Fitch, J. L., Stapleton, S., N., Mason, Z., D., Cole, R., M., Gilbert, S., R., Clemens, T., L., Morgan, E., F., Einhorn, T., A., and Gerstenfeld, L., C.: Bone formation during distraction osteogenesis is dependent on both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 signaling. J BONE MINER. RES., 23:596-609, 2008.
  166. Jepsen, K., Price, C., Silkman, L., Nicholls, F., Nasser, P., Hu, B., Hadi, N., Alapatt, M., Stapleton, S., Kakar, S., Einhorn, T., and Gerstenfeld, L.: Genetic Variation in the Patterns of Skeletal Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Progression During Endochondral Bone Formation Affects the Rate of Fracture Healing. J. BONE MINER. RES., 23:1204-1216 2008.
  167. Bajammal, S. S., Zlowodzki, M., Lelwica, A., Tornetta, P., Einhorn, T. A., Buckley, R., Leighton, R., Russell, T. A., Larsson, S., and Bhandari, M.: The Use of Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement in Fracture Treatment. A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 90(A):1186-1196, 2008.
  168. Giannoudis, P. V., Einhorn, T. A., and Schmidmaier, G., and Marsh, D.: The Diamond Concept – Open Questions. INJURY 39 Suppl 2:S3–6, 2008.
  169. Mollon, B., da Silva, V., Busse, J. W., Einhorn, T. A., and Bhandari, M: Electrical Stimulation for Long-Bone Fracture-Healing: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 90A:2322-2330, 2008.
  170. Axelrad, T., W., Steen, B., Lowenberg, D., W., Creevy, W., R., and Einhorn, T., A.: Heterotopic Ossification after the Use of Commercially Available Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Four Patients. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 90B:1617 – 1622, 2008.
  171. Morgan, E. F., Mason, Z. D., Bishop, G., Davis, A. D., Wigner, N. A., Gerstenfeld, L. C., and Einhorn, T. A. : Combined Effects of Recombinant Human BMP-7 (rhBMP-7) and Parathyroid Hormone (1-34) in Metaphyseal Bone Healing. BONE, 43:1031- 1038, 2008.
  172. Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures Investigators, Bhandari, M., Guyatt, G., Tornetta, P. 3rd, Schemitsch, E., H., Swiontkowski, M., Sanders, D., and Walter, S., D.: Randomized Trial of Reamed and Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing of Tibial Shaft Fractures. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 90A:2567-2578, 2008.
  173. Kayal, R. A., Alblowi, J., McKenzie, E., Krothapalli, N., Silkman, L., Gerstenfeld, L, Einhorn, T. A., and Graves, D.T: Diabetes Causes the Accelerated Loss of Cartilage during Fracture Repair which is Reversed by Insulin Treatment. BONE, 44:357-63, 2009.
  174. Morgan, E. F., Mason, Z. D., Chien, K. B., Pfeiffer, A.,J., Barnes, G. L., Einhorn, T. A., and Gerstenfeld, L. C.: Microcomputed Tomography Assessment of Fracture Healing: Relationships among Callus Structure, Composition, and Mechanical Function: BONE, 44:335-344, 2009.
  175. Gerstenfeld, L. C., Sacks, D. J., Pelis, M., Mason, Z. D., Graves, D. T., Barrero, M., Ominsky, M. S., Kostenuik, P. J., Morgan, E. F., Einhorn, T. A.: Comparison of Effects of the Bisphosphonate Alendronate Versus the RANKL Inhibitor Denosumab on Murine Fracture Healing. J. BONE MINER. RES., 24:196-208, 2009.
  176. Saleh, K., J., Quick, J., C., Sime, W., E., Novicoff, W., M., and Einhorn, T., A.: Recognizing and Preventing Burnout among Orthopaedic Leaders. CLIN. ORTHOP. RELAT. RES., 467:558-65, 2009.
  177. Wan, C., Gilbert, S. R., Cao, X. M., Shen, X., Ramaswamy, G., Jacobsen, K. A., Alaql, Z. S., Gerstenfeld, L. C., Einhorn, T. A. , Eberhardt, A. A., Deng, L., Guldberg, R. E., and Clemens, T. L.: Role of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha in Bone Regeneration. J. MUSCULOSKELET NEURONAL INTERACT., 8:323-324, 2009.
  178. Kooistra, B., Dijkman, B., Einhorn, T. A. Bhandari, M.: How to Design a Good Case Series. J BONE JOINT SURG91A:Suppl 3:21-26, 2009.
  179. Hunter, D. J., Gerstenfeld, L., Bishop, G., Davis, A. D., Mason, Z. D., Einhorn, T. A. , Maciewicz, R. A., Newham, P., Foster, M., Jackson, S., and Morgan, E. F.: Bone Marrow Lesions from Osteoarthritic Knees are Characterized by Sclerotic Bone that is Less Well Mineralized. ARTHRITIS RES. THER.11:R11, 2009.
  180. Bais, M., McLean, J., Sebastiani, P., Young, M., Wigner, N.,Smith,T., Kotton, D.N., Einhorn, T. A., Gerstenfeld, L. C.: Transcriptional Analysis of Fracture Healing and the Induction of Embryonic Stem Cell-Related Genes. PLoS ONE, 4:e5393, 2009.
  181. Kakar, S., Little, D, and Einhorn, T. A: Can We Improve Fixation and Outcomes in the Treatment of Femoral Neck Fractures? The Use of Pharmaceuticals. J. ORTHOP TRAUMA, 6:413-421, 2009.
  182. Abdul-Hadi, O., Parvizi, J., Austin, M. S., Viscusi, E., Einhorn, T.: Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Orthopaedics. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 91A:2020-2027, 2009.
  183. Palomares, K. T., Gleason, R. E., Mason, Z. D., Cullinane, D. M., Einhorn, T. A., Gerstenfeld, L. C., and Morgan, E. F.: Mechanical Stimulation Alters Tissue Differentiation and Molecular Expression during Bone Healing. J. ORTHOP. RES.,  27:1123-1132, 2009.
  184. Busse, J.W., Bhandari, M., Guyatt, G.H., Heels-Ansdell, D., Mandel, S., Sanders, D., Schemitsch, E., Swiontkowski, M., Tornetta, P. 3rd, Wai,E., and Walter, S.D.: SPRINT Investigators. Use of Both Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and Short Form-36 Among Tibial-Fracture Patients Was Redundant. J. CLIN. EPIDEMIOL., 62:1210 – 1217, 2009.
  185. Bais, M. V., Wigner, N., Young, M., Toholka, R., Graves, D. T., Morgan, E. F., Gerstenfeld, L., C., and Einhorn, T., A.: BMP2 Is Essential for Post Natal Osteogenesis but Not for Recruitment of Osteogenic Stem Cells. BONE, 45:254 – 256, 2009.
  186. Nieves, J. W., Bilezekian, J. P., Lane, J. M., Einhorn, T. A., Wang, Y., Steinbuch, M., and Cosman, F: Fragility Fractures of the Hip and Femur: Incidence and Patient Characteristics. OSTEOPOROSIS INT., 21:399 – 408, 2009.
  187. Bhandari, M., Sprague, S., Schemitsch, E.H.; International Hip Fracture Research Collaborative: Resolving Controversies in Hip Fracture Care: The Need for Large Collaborative Trials in Hip Fractures. J. ORTHOP. TRAUMA., 23:479-84, 2009.
  188. Alblowi, J., Kayal, R.A., Siqueria, M., McKenzi, E., Krothapalli, N., McLean, J., Conn, J., Nikolajczyk, B., Einhorn, T.A., Gerstenfeld, L.,Graves, D.T.: High Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Contribute to Accelerated Loss of Cartilage in Diabetic Fracture Healing., AM. J. PATHOL.175:1574-85, 2009.
  189. Einhorn, T. A.:Can an Anti-fracture Agent Heal Fractures? CLIN. CASES MINER. BONE METAB., 7:11-14, 2010.
  190. Axelrad, T. W., and Einhorn, T. A.: Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Orthopaedic Surgery. CYTOKINE GROWTH FACTOR REV. 20(5-6):481-488, 2009.
  191. Evans, C. H., Liu, F.J., Glatt, V., Hoyland, J.A., Kirker-Head, C., Walsh, A., Betz, O., Wells, J. W.,Betz, V., Porter, R. M., Saad, F. A., Gerstenfeld, L. C., Einhorn, T. A., Harris, M. B, Vrahas, M. S.: Use of Genetically Modified Muscle and Fat Grafts to Repair Defects in Bone and Cartilage. EUR. CELL MATER., 18:96 – 111, 2009.
  192. Marsell, R., and Einhorn, T. A.:The Role of Endogenous Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Normal Skeletal Repair. Injury 40 (Suppl 3):S4-S7, 2009.
  193. Giannoudis, P. V., and Einhorn, T. A.:Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Musculoskeletal Medicine. Injury 40(Suppl 3):S1-S3, 2009.
  194. 194. Aspenberg, P., Genant, H. K., Johansson, T., Nino, A. J., See, K., Krohn, K., García-Hernández, P. A., Recknor, C. P., Einhorn, T. A., Dalsky, G. P., Mitlak, B. H., Fierlinger, A., Lakshmanan, M. C.: Teriparatide for Acceleration of Fracture Repair in Humans: A Prospective Randomized, Double-blind Study of 102 Postmenopausal Women with Distal Radius Fractures: J. BONE MINER. RES., 25:404 – 415, 2010.
  195. 195. Salisbury Palomares, K., T., Gerstenfeld, L., C., Wigner, N., A., Einhorn, T., A., and Morgan, E., F.: Transcriptional Profiling and Biochemical Analysis of Mechanically Induced Cartilaginous Tissues. ARTHRITIS RHEUM., 62:1108 – 1118, 2010.
  196. Cox, G., Einhorn, T. A., Tzioupis, C., and Giannoudis, P. V.: Bone Turnover Markers in Fracture Healing. J. BONE JOINT SURG. (Br)., 92:329 - 334, 2010.
  197. Kayal, R. A., Siqueira, M., Alblowi, J., McLean, J., Krothapalli, N., Faibish, D., Einhorn, T. A., Gerstenfeld, L. C., and Graves, D. T: TNF-alpha Mediates Diabetes Enhanced Chondrocyte Apoptosis during Fracture Healing and Stimulates Chondrocyte Apoptosis Through FOXO-1. J BONE MINER. RES., 25:1604 - 1615.
  198. Marsell, R., and Einhorn, T. A.: Emerging Bone Healing Therapies. J. ORTHOP. TRAUMA, 24 Suppl., 1:S4 – S8, 2010.
  199. Einhorn, T. A.: The Wnt Signaling Pathway as a Potential Target for Therapies to Enhance Bone Repair. SCI. TRANSL. MED., 2(42):42ps36, 2010.
  200. Nauth, A., Giannoudis, P. V., Einhorn, T. A., Hankenson, K. D., Friedlaender, G. E., Li, R., and Schemitsch, E. H.: Growth Factors: Beyond Bone Morphogenetic Proteins. J. ORTHOP. TRAUMA, 24:543 - 546, 2010.
  201. Shane, E., Burr, D., Ebeling, P. R., Abrahamsen, B., Adler, R.A., Brown, T.D., Cheung, A. M., Cosman, F., Curtis, J. R, Dell, R., Dempster, D., Einhorn, T. A., Genant, H. K., Geusens, P., Klaushofer, K., Koval, K., Lane, J. M., McKiernan, F., McKinney, R., Ng, A., Nieves, J., O'Keefe, R., Papapoulos, S., Sen, H. T., van der Meulen, M. C, Weinstein, R. S., and Whyte, M.: Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fractures: Report of a Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. J BONE MINER. RES., 25:2267 – 2294, 2010.
  202. Sibai, T., Morgan, E. F., Einhorn, T. A. : Anabolic Agents and Bone Quality. CLIN ORTHOP. REL. RES. 469:2215-2224, 2011.
  203. Einhorn, T. A.:Bone Healing; Little Secrets. CLIN. CASES MINER. BONE METAB., 8:17-20, 2011.
  204. Axelrad, T. W, Einhorn, T. A. : Use of Clinical Assessment Tools in the Evaluation of Fracture Healing. INJURY, 42:301-305, 2011.
  205. Giannoudis, P. V., Jones, E, and Einhorn, T. A.: Fracture Healing and Bone Repair. INJURY, 42:549-550, 2011.
  206. Marsell, R., and Einhorn, T. A.: The Biology of Fracture Healing. INJURY, 42:551-555, 2011.
  207. Nauth, A., McKee, M. D., Einhorn, T. A., Watson, J. T, Li R., and Schemitsch, E. H.: Managing Bone Defects. J. ORTHOP. TRAUMA, 8:462-466, 2011.
  208. Grimes, R., Jepsen, K. J., Fitch, J. L., Einhorn, T.A., and Gerstenfeld, L. C.: The Transcriptome of Fracture Healing Defines Mechanisms of Coordination of Skeletal and Vascular Development during Endochondral Bone Formation. J BONE MINER. RES., 26:2597-2609, 2011<.
  209. Chaudhry, H., Mundi, R., Einhorn, T. A. , Russell, T. A., Parvizi, J., Bhandari, M.: Variability in the Approach to Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients with Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures. J. ARTHROPLASTY, 27:569-574.
  210. Sheth, U., Simunovic, N., Tornetta, P., Einhorn, T. A., and Bhandari, M.: Poor Citation of Prior Evidence in Hip Fracture Trials. J. BONE JOINT SURG. 93:2079-2086, 2011.
  211. Bais, M.V., Shabin, Z. M, Young, M., Einhorn, T. A. , Kotton, D. N., and Gerstenfeld, L.. C.:Role of Nanog in the Maintenance of Marrow Stromal Cells during Post Natal Bone Regeneration. BIOCHEM BIOPHYS RES COMMUN 417:211-216, 2011.
  212. Einhorn, T. A.: New Technologies for the Enhancement of Skeletal Repair: Challenges and Opportunities. INDIAN J ORTHOP. 45:489-91, 2011.
  213. Wigner, N. A., Kulkarni, N., Yakavonis, M., Young, M., Tinsley, B., Meeks, B., Einhorn, T. A., and Gerstenfeld, L.C.: Urine Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) as Biomarkers for the Progression of Fracture Healing. INJURY 43:211-216, 2012.
  214. Sheth, U., Simunovic, N., Klein, G., Fu, F., Einhorn, T. A. , Schemitsch, E., Ayeni, O. R., and Bhandari M.: Efficacy of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma Use for Orthopaedic Indications; A Meta-Analysis. J BONE JOINT SURG., 93:298-307, 2012.
  215. Wigner, N. A., Kulkarni, N., Yakavonis, M., Young, M., Tinsley, B., Meeks, B., Einhorn, T. A., and Gerstenfeld, L.C.: Urine Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) as Biomarkers for the Progression of Fracture Healing. INJURY 43:211-216, 2012.
  216. Abrahamsen, B., Einhorn, T.A.: Beyond a Reasonable Doubt? Bisphosphonates and Atypical Femur Fractures. BONE 50:1196-1200, 2012.
  217. Matsubara, H., Hogan, D.,E., Morgan, E. F., Mortolock, D., P., Einhorn, T., A., Gerstenfeld, L., C.: Vascular Tissues Are a Primary Source of BMP2 Expression during Bone Formation Induced by Distraction Osteogenesis. BONE, 51:168-180.
  218. Sagi, H. C., Young, M. L., Gerstenfeld, L., Einhorn, T. A., Tornetta, P.: Qualitative and Quantitative Differences Between Bone Graft Obtained from the Medullary Canal (with a Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator) and the Iliac Crest of the Same Patient, J. BONE JOINT SURG., 94A:2128-2135, 2012.
  219. Schemitsch, E. H., Bhandari, M., Guyatt, G., Sanders, D. W., Swiontkowski, M., Tornetta, P., Walter, S. D., Zdero, R., Goslings, J. C, Teague, D., Jeray, K., McKee, M. D; Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT) Investigators: Prognostic Factors for Predicting Outcomes after Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia. J. BONE JOINT SURG., 94A:1786-1793, 2012.
  220. Hebert-Davies, J ., Laflamme, G.Y .,  Rouleau, D ., and the HEALTH and FAITH investigators . Bias Towards Dementia: Are Hip Fracture Trials Excluding Too Many Patients? INJURY 43:1978-84, 2012.
  221. Alblowi, J., Tian, C., Siqueira, M. F., Kayal, R., McKenzie, E., Behl, Y., Gerstenfeld, L., Einhorn, T. A., and Graves DT.: Chemokine Expression Is Upregulated in Chondrocytes in Diabetic Fracture Healing. BONE, 53:294-300, 2013.
  222. Wigner, N. A., Soung, D. Y., Einhorn, T. A. , Drissi, H., Gerstenfeld, L. C.: Functional Role of Runx3 in the Regulation of Aggrecan Expression during Cartilage Development. J. CELL PHYSIOL. 228:2232-2242, 2013.
  223. 223. Rodeo, S. A., Boden, S. D., Murray, M. M, and Einhorn TA.: 2011 AOA Symposium: Tissue Engineering and Tissue Regeneration: AOA Critical Issues. J BONE JOINT SURG(A). 7:95:e1091-7. 2013.
  224. Marsell, R., Steen, B., Bais, M. V., Mortlock, D. P., Einhorn, T. A., and, Gerstenfeld, L,C.:Skeletal Trauma Generates Systemic BMP2 Activation That Is Temporally Related to the Mobilization of CD73+ Cells. J. ORTHOP. RES., 32:17-23, 2013.
  225. Shane, E., Ebeling, P.R., Abrahamsen, B., Adler, R.A., Brown, T.D., Cheung, A.M., Cosman, F., Curtis, J.R., Dell, R., Dempster, D.W., Einhorn, T.A., Genant, H.K., Geusens, P., Klaushofer, K., Lane, J.M., McKiernan, F., McKinney, R., Ng, A., Nieves, J., O'Keefe, R., Papapoulos, S., Howe, T.S., van der Meulen, M.C., Weinstein, R.S., and Whyte, M.P.: Atypical Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femoral Fractures: Second Report of a Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. J. BONE MINER. RES., 29:1 – 23, 2014.
  226. Einhorn, T. A.  Bogdan, Y., Tornetta, P. 3rd.: Bisphosphonate-Associated Fractures of the Femur: Pathophysiology and Treatment. J ORTHOP TRAUMA, 28:433-438, 2014
  227. Al-Sebaei , M. O., Daukss, D. M, Belkina, A. C, Kaker, S., Wigner, N. A, Cusher, D. , Graves, D., Einhorn, T., Morgan, E. , and Gerstenfeld, L. C: Role of Fas and Treg Cells in Fracture Healing as Characterized in the Fas Deficient (lpr) Mouse Model of Lupus. J BONE MINER. RES, 29:1478-91, 2014.
  228. Busse, J. W., Bhandari, M., Einhorn, T. A., Heckman, J. D., Leung, K. S., Schemitsch, E., Tornetta, P. 3rd, Walter, S. D., Guyatt, G. H.. Trial to Re-evaluate Ultrasound in the Treatment of Tibial Fractures (TRUST): A Multicenter Randomized Pilot Study. TRIALS, 15:206, 2014.
  229. Einhorn, T. A. and Gerstenfeld, L. C.: Fracture Healing: Mechanisms and Interventions. NAT REV RHEUMATOL., 11:45-54, 2015.
  230. Ko Ki, Coimbra, L. S., Tian, C., Alblowi, J., Kayal, R. A., Einhorn, T. A. , Gerstenfeld, L. C., Pignolo, R. J., and Graves, D. T.: Diabetes Reduces Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Fracture Healing through a TNF-a-mediated Mechanism. DIABETOLOGIA 58:633-42, 2015
  231. Bhandari, M., Devereaux, P.J., Einhorn, T. A, Thabane, L., Schemitsch, E. H., Koval, K. J., Frihagen, F., Poolman, R. W., Tetsworth, K., Guerra-Farfán, E., Madden, K., Sprague, S., Guyatt, G., and the HEALTH Investigators: Hip Fracture Evaluation with Alternatives of Total Hip Arthroplasty versus Hemiarthropasty (HEALTH): Protocol for a Multicentre Randomised Trial. BMJ Open. 2015 Feb 13;5(2):e006263. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006263.
  232. Burgers, P. T., Poolman, R. W., Van Bakel, T. M., Tuinebreijer,  W. E., Zielinski, S. M., Bhandari, M., Patka, P., Van Lieshout, E. M.; HEALTH and FAITH Trial Investigators: Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for Elderly Patients with a Femoral Neck Fracture., J BONE JOINT SURG., 97A:751-757, 2015.